MLK Day and Beyond the “I Have a Dream” Speech

Leaders of the March on Washington for Jobs & Freedom including Rabbi Joachim Prinz,, Eugene Carson Blake, Martin Luther King, Floyd McKissick, Matthew Ahmann & John Lewis lead a procession.  (Photo by Robert W. Kelley/Time Life Pictures/Getty Images)

Leaders of the March on Washington for Jobs & Freedom including Rabbi Joachim Prinz,, Eugene Carson Blake, Martin Luther King, Floyd McKissick, Matthew Ahmann & John Lewis lead a procession. (Photo by Robert W. Kelley/Time Life Pictures/Getty Images)

With Monday being Martin Luther King Day, the easy and painless post to do is to simple repost MLK’s famous “I Have a Dream” speech which is clearly powerful and important.  But there’s a argument to be made that his “Letter from a Birmingham Jail” is equally as important to the Civil Rights movement as the March on Washington, Selma and other important MLK events and milestones.

The letter was published by The Atlantic in response to public statements of concern issued by several white religious leaders in the South.  While less famous, it could be considered one of MLK’s most important documents.

 

While confined here in the Birmingham city jail, I came across your recent statement calling our present activities “unwise and untimely.” Seldom, if ever, do I pause to answer criticism of my work and ideas. If I sought to answer all of the criticisms that cross my desk, my secretaries would be engaged in little else in the course of the day, and I would have no time for constructive work. But since I feel that you are men of genuine good will and your criticisms are sincerely set forth, I would like to answer your statement in what I hope will be patient and reasonable terms. 

I think I should give the reason for my being in Birmingham, since you have been influenced by the argument of “outsiders coming in” 

I am in Birmingham because injustice is here …I am cognizant of the interrelatedness of all communities and states. I cannot sit idly by in Atlanta and not be concerned about what happens in Birmingham. Injustice anywhere is a threat to justice everywhere. We are caught in an inescapable network of mutuality, tied in a single garment of destiny. Whatever affects one directly affects all indirectly. Never again can we afford to live with the narrow, provincial “outside agitator” idea. Anyone who lives inside the United States can never be considered an outsider … 

We have waited for more than three hundred and forty years for our God-given and constitutional rights. The nations of Asia and Africa are moving with jetlike speed toward the goal of political independence, and we still creep at horse-and-buggy pace toward the gaining of a cup of coffee at a lunch counter. I guess it is easy for those who have never felt the stinging darts of segregation to say “wait.” But when you have seen vicious mobs lynch your mothers and fathers at will and drown your sisters and brothers at whim; when you have seen hate-filled policemen curse, kick, brutalize, and even kill your black brothers and sisters with impunity; when you see the vast majority of your twenty million Negro brothers smothering in an airtight cage of poverty in the midst of an affluent society; when you suddenly find your tongue twisted and your speech stammering as you seek to explain to your six-year-old daughter why she cannot go to the public amusement park that has just been advertised on television, and see tears welling up in her little eyes when she is told that Funtown is closed to colored children, and see the depressing clouds of inferiority begin to form in her little mental sky, and see her begin to distort her little personality by unconsciously developing a bitterness toward white people; when you have to concoct an answer for a five-year-old son asking in agonizing pathos, “Daddy, why do white people treat colored people so mean?”; when you take a cross-country drive and find it necessary to sleep night after night in the uncomfortable corners of your automobile because no motel will accept you; when you are humiliated day in and day out by nagging signs reading “white” and “colored”; when your first name becomes “nigger” and your middle name becomes “boy” (however old you are) and your last name becomes “John,” and when your wife and mother are never given the respected title “Mrs.”; when you are harried by day and haunted by night by the fact that you are a Negro, living constantly at tiptoe stance, never quite knowing what to expect next, and plagued with inner fears and outer resentments; when you are forever fighting a degenerating sense of “nobodyness”–then you will understand why we find it difficult to wait. There comes a time when the cup of endurance runs over and men are no longer willing to be plunged into an abyss of injustice where they experience the bleakness of corroding despair. I hope, sirs, you can understand our legitimate and unavoidable impatience …

You express a great deal of anxiety over our willingness to break laws. This is certainly a legitimate concern. Since we so diligently urge people to obey the Supreme Court’s decision of 1954 outlawing segregation in the public schools, it is rather strange and paradoxical to find us consciously breaking laws. One may well ask, “How can you advocate breaking some laws and obeying others?” The answer is found in the fact that there are two types of laws: there are just laws, and there are unjust laws. I would agree with St. Augustine that “An unjust law is no law at all.” 

Now, what is the difference between the two? How does one determine when a law is just or unjust? A just law is a man-made code that squares with the moral law, or the law of God. An unjust law is a code that is out of harmony with the moral law. To put it in the terms of St. Thomas Aquinas, an unjust law is a human law that is not rooted in eternal and natural law. Any law that uplifts human personality is just. Any law that degrades human personality is unjust. All segregation statutes are unjust because segregation distorts the soul and damages the personality …

There are some instances when a law is just on its face and unjust in its application. For instance, I was arrested Friday on a charge of parading without a permit. Now, there is nothing wrong with an ordinance which requires a permit for a parade, but when the ordinance is used to preserve segregation and to deny citizens the First Amendment privilege of peaceful assembly and peaceful protest, then it becomes unjust. 

Of course, there is nothing new about this kind of civil disobedience. It was seen sublimely in the refusal of Shadrach, Meshach, and Abednego to obey the laws of Nebuchadnezzar because a higher moral law was involved. It was practiced superbly by the early Christians, who were willing to face hungry lions and the excruciating pain of chopping blocks before submitting to certain unjust laws of the Roman Empire. To a degree, academic freedom is a reality today because Socrates practiced civil disobedience. 

We can never forget that everything Hitler did in Germany was “legal” and everything the Hungarian freedom fighters did in Hungary was “illegal.” It was “illegal” to aid and comfort a Jew in Hitler’s Germany. But I am sure that if I had lived in Germany during that time, I would have aided and comforted my Jewish brothers even though it was illegal. If I lived in a Communist country today where certain principles dear to the Christian faith are suppressed, I believe I would openly advocate disobeying these anti-religious laws … 

I have no fear about the outcome of our struggle in Birmingham, even if our motives are presently misunderstood. We will reach the goal of freedom in Birmingham and all over the nation, because the goal of America is freedom. Abused and scorned though we may be, our destiny is tied up with the destiny of America. Before the Pilgrims landed at Plymouth, we were here. Before the pen of Jefferson scratched across the pages of history the majestic word of the Declaration of Independence, we were here …If the inexpressible cruelties of slavery could not stop us, the opposition we now face will surely fail. We will win our freedom because the sacred heritage of our nation and the eternal will of God are embodied in our echoing demands …

Never before have I written a letter this long–or should I say a book? I’m afraid that it is much too long to take your precious time. I can assure you that it would have been much shorter if I had been writing from a comfortable desk, but what else is there to do when you are alone for days in the dull monotony of a narrow jail cell other than write long letters, think strange thoughts, and pray long prayers? 

If I have said anything in this letter that is an understatement of the truth and is indicative of an unreasonable impatience, I beg you to forgive me. If I have said anything in this letter that is an overstatement of the truth and is indicative of my having a patience that makes me patient with anything less than brotherhood, I beg God to forgive me.

 

Yours for the cause of Peace and Brotherhood,
MARTIN LUTHER KING JR.

  2 comments for “MLK Day and Beyond the “I Have a Dream” Speech

  1. junior
    January 21, 2015 at 3:11 pm

    Bob Dornan was there, fighting for equal rights, with Martin Luther King – living up to his personal credo…Faith, Family, and Freedom.

    In the summer of 1963, on a hot day in front of the Lincoln Memorial in Washington, D.C., proudly wearing his Air Force uniform and pilot wings, sat Capt. Robert K. Dornan. He was there for Martin Luther King Jr.’s equal rights March on Washington. He was there for the same reason that thousands of others went that day – because he was outraged that the individual rights of some Americans were being violated. He went because he felt that his presence would help put an end to a vicious injustice. The Constitution of the United States is sacred to Bob. He was there to ensure that it applied to everyone.

    Never in American history had there been a demonstration like the one Aug 28, 1963. The crowd that gathered were the frontline troops in the fight for equal rights and the catalyst for the passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. Bob is proud that he was present on that historic day, which helped transform this nation into a more open and equal place.

    A year later, in 1964, Dornan was again putting it on the line for equal rights, this time in Mississippi, where he went at personal risk to register black voters (the FBI reported a KKK death threat against Bob). This kind of personal involvement makes Bob Dornan what President Ronald Reagan described as “…an American original!”

    http://www.bobdornan.com/on_civil_rights.html

  2. David Vasquez
    January 21, 2015 at 3:19 pm

    is Bob Dornan still alive?

    Seriously. I guess I could look.

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