There are a number of right wing websites publishing odes to the Pledge of Allegiance on this July 4th Holiday.
While many people know that Francis Scott Key wrote the Star Spangled Banner, few know who wrote the Pledge.
It was Francis Bellamy; he is buried in my hometown of Rome, NY and while not born there,was educated there and considered it home.Ã‚Â
Rome is historically significant for several other reasons.Ã‚Â Ft. Stanwix in Rome was the first place the Stars and Stripes flew in the face of the enemy.Ã‚Â The Battle of Oriskany, within the borders of Rome, was one of the bloodiest battles of the Revolutionary War.Ã‚Â The first shovel of dirt for the Erie Canal, which opened travel to the West (which was Buffalo at the time), was turned in Rome (and “We’ll make Rome before 6 O’Clock, 15 Miles on the Erie Canal” was a lyric from a song we all had to sing in elementary school).Ã‚Â Rome was the site of the first commerical cheese factory in the US, home to the largest bicentennial project in America in 1976 with the reconstruction of Ft. Stanwix, and is home to Northeast NORAD, the first to detect something amiss in the skies on 9/11/2001.
So, we had to learn a lot about history that happened pretty much in our own backyard.Ã‚Â Here’s a short history of the Pledge.Ã‚Â Prior to World War II, children used a “Bellamy Salute” with the right handÃ‚Â extended up and forward with palms down facing the flag.Ã‚Â That salute was dropped for obvious reasons (not for the singing of “Springtime for Hilter”).Ã‚Â
Ã‚Â Enjoy the following.Ã‚Â
The Pledge of Allegiance
The Pledge was published in the September 8th issue of The Youth’s Companion, the leading family magazine and the Reader’s Digest of its day. Its owner and editor, Daniel Ford, had hired Francis in 1891 as his assistant when Francis was pressured into leaving his baptist church in Boston because of his socialist sermons. As a member of his congregation, Ford had enjoyed Francis’s sermons. Ford later founded the liberal and often controversial Ford Hall Forum, located in downtown Boston.
In 1892 Francis Bellamy was also a chairman of a committee of state superintendents of education in the National Education Association. As its chairman, he prepared the program for the public schools’ quadricentennial celebration for Columbus Day in 1892. He structured this public school program around a flag raising ceremony and a flag salute – his ‘Pledge of Allegiance.’
His original Pledge read as follows: ‘I pledge allegiance to my Flag and (to*) the Republic for which it stands, one nation, indivisible, with liberty and justice for all.’ He considered placing the word, ‘equality,’ in his Pledge, but knew that the state superintendents of education on his committee were against equality for women and African Americans. [ * ‘to’ added in October, 1892. ]
Dr. Mortimer Adler, American philosopher and last living founder of the Great Books program at Saint John’s College, has analyzed these ideas in his book, The Six Great Ideas. He argues that the three great ideas of the American political tradition are ‘equality, liberty and justice for all.’ ‘Justice’ mediates between the often conflicting goals of ‘liberty’ and ‘equality.’
In 1923 and 1924 the National Flag Conference, under the ‘leadership of the American Legion and the Daughters of the American Revolution, changed the Pledge’s words, ‘my Flag,’ to ‘the Flag of the United States of America.’ Bellamy disliked this change, but his protest was ignored.
In 1954, Congress after a campaign by the Knights of Columbus, added the words, ‘under God,’ to the Pledge. The Pledge was now both a patriotic oath and a public prayer.
Bellamy’s granddaughter said he also would have resented this second change. He had been pressured into leaving his church in 1891 because of his socialist sermons. In his retirement in Florida, he stopped attending church because he disliked the racial bigotry he found there.
What follows is Bellamy’s own account of some of the thoughts that went through his mind in August, 1892, as he picked the words of his Pledge:
It began as an intensive communing with salient points of our national history, from the Declaration of Independence onwards; with the makings of the Constitution…with the meaning of the Civil War; with the aspiration of the people…
The true reason for allegiance to the Flag is the ‘republic for which it stands.’ …And what does that vast thing, the Republic mean? It is the concise political word for the Nation – the One Nation which the Civil War was fought to prove. To make that One Nation idea clear, we must specify that it is indivisible, as Webster and Lincoln used to repeat in their great speeches. And its future?
Just here arose the temptation of the historic slogan of the French Revolution which meant so much to Jefferson and his friends, ‘Liberty, equality, fraternity.’ No, that would be too fanciful, too many thousands of years off in realization. But we as a nation do stand square on the doctrine of liberty and justice for all…
If the Pledge’s historical pattern repeats, its words will be modified during this decade. Below are two possible changes.
Some prolife advocates recite the following slightly revised Pledge: ‘I pledge allegiance to the Flag of the United States of America and to the Republic for which it stands, one nation under God, indivisible, with liberty and justice for all, born and unborn.’
A few liberals recite a slightly revised version of Bellamy’s original Pledge: ‘I pledge allegiance to my Flag, and to the Republic for which it stands, one nation, indivisible, with equality, liberty and justice for all.’